active source routing protocol for mobile network

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Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their unique properties. One main challenge in design of these networks is their vulnerability to security attacks. In this paper, we study the threats an ad hoc network faces and the security goals to be achieved. We identify the new challenges and opportunities posed by this new networking environment and explore new approaches to secure its communication. In particular, we take advantage of the inherent redundancy in ad hoc networks — multiple routes between nodes — to defend routing against denial of service attacks. We also use replication and new cryptographic schemes.


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Enotes First book Published by GianParkash Inc.... electronictheory

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 Enotes First book Published by GianParkash Inc... electronictheory

If Problem in Text then just Download from below link and open with pdf reader....
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Electronic Theory
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Free Download ece books

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Free Download Electronic Books

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Link to Projects For ece

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List of Projects
1. DEVELOPMENT OF MODBUS BASED DIGITAL I/O CARD WITH RS-485 PORT FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS...
2.DIGITAL WATERMARKING USING MULTIRESOLUTION ANALYSIS....
3.DEVELOPMENT OF SUMPPUMP LOGIC FOR PIPELINE AUTOMATION....
4.Standard Ethernet as an Embedded Communication Network...
5.Micro controller based Parameter Monitoring System...
6.GAIT RECOGNITION SYSTEM...
7.DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ETHERNET ENABLED HOME AUTOMATION AND SECURITY SYSTEMS...
8.CHECK-POST AUTIMATION USING RFID...
9.RFID Based Book Tracking System for Libraries...
10.ZIGBEE NAVIGATOR....
11.Boiler control in industries...
12.BIOMETRIC BASED HEART RATE AND TEMPERATURE MONITORING...
13.PC Controlled Robot...
14.MANUAL AT89C51 PROGRAMMER...
15.THYRISTOR CONTROLLED BATTERY CHARGER...
16.Image Watermarking using Wavelet Transforms....
17.Field Strength Analyser...
18.DTMF Based RF Remote Control System....
19.BIOMETRIC CELLULAR CONTROLLER...
20.Automatic Railway Gate control....
21.X RAY SENSOR AMPLIFIER PCB...
22.DEVELOPMENT OF SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL TO MAXIMISE ENERGY GENERATED....
23.Digital Lock Using AT89C2051 with LCD and Keypad...
24.AUTOMATED UNMANNED LEVEL RAILWAY CROSSING SYSTEM...
25. Monitor and Control of Greenhouse Environment “GreenBee”...
26.INTELLIGENT ENERGY SAVING SYSYTEM....
27.DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM....
28.Real-Time Speech Pitch Shifting on an FPGA...
29.Voice Tuner and its Effects...
30.Security of the Electronic equipments using the RS-485 protocol...
31.Electronic Voting Machine...
32.VOICE ENABLED SPEED CONTROL OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR..
33.ZIGBEE INTELLIGENT MONITORING...
34.Design and development of SMS based car engine control system to prevent car theft using GSM modem...
35.A VEHICULAR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK for Vehicle Emissions Monitoring...
36.ATM Security System using GSM and MEMS Module...
37.Audio and Video capture Robot using RF communication...
38.AUTOMATED TESTING OF CGFC CPU MODULES
39.CAN BASED ACCIDENT AVOIDENCE SYSTEM...
40.Hand Gestures recognition technology based wireless surveillence bomb diffusion system...
41.GOLD CODE GENERATOR FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS....
42.Data Acquisition of Flex Nozzle Using Strain Guages and LVDT's...
43.Video Processing Project...
44.Micro-controller Based Vigilance System
45.DATA LOGGER
46.Moving Message Display System
47.CCTV SECURITY SYSTEM
48.RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION & NAVIGATION WITH VOICE
49.RFID Based System For Healthcare Service
50.Finger Print Based Security System
51.INJECTION PUMP USING MICROCONTROLLER
52.DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOUCH SCREEN MOBILE
53.RFID Inventory contrl system for shopping malls
54.GPS BASED CAB MONITORING SYSTEM
55.GSM based instantaneous vehicle registration details extraction system
56.SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING MICRO CONTROLLER BY USING PWM
57.A GSM BASED VEHICLE MONITORING & SECURITY SYSTEM
58.Real Time Passenger Information System
59.ADVANCE ENCRYPTION STANDARD
60.INNOVATIVE CONETION CONTROL TO CLEAR THE TRAFFIC FOR AMBULANCE USING RF
61.TOUCH SCREEN AND ZIGBEE BASED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ASSISTANT FOR DUMB/ILLITERATES IN AIRLINES
62.GPS based blind man device with user input interface
63.THE ELETRONIC PASSPORT& FEATURE OF GOVERNMENT ISSUED RFID BASED IDENTIFICATION
64.PROMOTING CAN 2.0 FOR COLLEGE CAMPUS
65.ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION SYSEM BASED ON RFID
66.GPS AND GSM BASED HUMAN HEALTH MONITORING
67.Wireless control of Robotic Arm using RF-FSK Technique
68.DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TILT BASED TOUCH FREE MOBILE PHONE
69.Advanced Steward Air Calling System
70.WSN BASED MODEL FOR ANTI COLLISION ACCIDENT PREVENTED FOR TRAIN
71.E-AUTOMATION FOR TRAINS
72.SMS BASED PATIENT REPORT FROM REMOTE PLACE
73.GPS BASED VIRTUAL FENCING
74.VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM USING RF COMMUNICATION
75.Security system with Image capturing
76.Smart Card based access control system
77.Zigbee based energymeter reading on PC
78.GSM BASED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM
79.ENERGY CONSERVATION SYSTEM USING PIR032
80.RFID AND GSM BASED INTELLIGENT MAIL BOX
81.DGS DRIVING GUIDANCE SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
82.MOBILE PHONE CONTROLLED PC WITH CONTROL ELECTRONIC DEVICES
83.ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM WITH THEFT CONTROL AND ACCIDENT NOTIFICATION
84.ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN RIVER FLOW MODELING
85.GSM BASED SCADA IMPLEMENTATION USING MICROCONTROLLER
86.PORTABLE LIFT CARRYING HOUSE HOLD ITEMS
87.RABBIT HOME AUTOMATION
88.Hand Gestures recognition technology based wireless surveillence bomb diffusion system
89.GSM based car engine control Implementation to stop car theft
90.Wireless control of Robotic Arm using RF-FSK Technique
91.FACULTY CLASS ALERT USING GSM
92.KNOWLEDGE EVALUTION BASED INTELLIGENT TOOL BASED ON M2M
93.Celsius scale digital themometer using 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51)
94.AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH VISITOR COUNTER
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Hand Gestures recognition technology based wireless surveillence bomb diffusion system

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This is an interesting robot that can be controlled by hand gestures and by a RF remote. This can be moved forward and reverse direction using geared motors of 60RPM. Also this robot can take sharp turnings towards left and right directions. This project uses AT89S52 MCU as its controller. A high sensitive induction type metal detector is designed using colpitts oscillator principle and fixed to this robot. Also a mobile phone signal isolator is interfaced to the kit. When the robot is moving on a surface, the system produces a beep sound when bomb is detected. Simultaneously a signal is fed to the jammer section to switch on the jammer. This jammer diffuses the bomb by jamming the mobile signal of GSM or CDMA or 3G networks.
The RF modules used here are STT-433 MHz Transmitter, STR-433 MHz Receiver, HT640 RF Encoder and HT648 RF Decoder. The three switches are interfaced to the RF transmitter through RF Encoder. The encoder continuously reads the status of the switches, passes the data to the RF transmitter and the transmitter transmits the data.
This project uses 9V battery. This project is much useful for mines detection and surveillance applications.



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Hand gesture based wheel chair

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The use of powered wheelchairs with high navigational intelligence is one of the great steps towards the integration of severely physically disabled and mentally handicapped people. Driving a wheelchair in domestic environments is a difficult task even for a normal person and becomes even more difficult for people with arms or hands impairments. Tetra pelagic people are completely unable to operate a joystick unless they use the tongue, which is obviously a very tedious task. Simultaneously blind and paraplegic people deal with a very uneasy situation which couples two problems: locomotion and localization. The Rob Chair system is being developed to overcome the problems described above, allowing the end-user to just perform safe movements and accomplish some daily life important tasks.
3 Axis Acceleration Sensor Board based on ADXL3XX from Analog devices is used for gesture recognition. It is a first generation 3 axis acceleration sensor. User could get acceleration value of X, Y, and Z axis. And it is widely used in shock, slope, and moving detection. Output sensitivity could be select by simply set voltage level on few pins. The output of the sensor is analog mode.
A prototype chair is implemented with a small chair and 60rpm motors are used to move the chair. A free-wheel is arranged to change the chair direction according to user’s requirement.This project uses 12V rechargeable battery. This project is very much useful for the disabled.

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GSM based car engine control Implementation to stop car theft

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An embedded system is a combination of software and hardware to perform a dedicated task.Some of the main devices used in embedded products are Microprocessors and Microcontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to as general purpose processors as they simply accept the inputs, process it and give the output. In contrast, a microcontroller not only accepts the data as inputs but also manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices, controls the data and thus finally gives the result.
As everyone in this competitive world prefers to make the things easy and simple to handle.In this project we deal with the security of the vehicle. when ever the GSM modem receives the message from the particular mobile then the car engine gets stopped .The mobile number from which the message is being sent should be the authorized mobile number. The authorized mobile number should be feeded into the system through the keypad and the number is stored in the EEPROM.


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Designing a Hartley Oscillator

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Here I'll present the schematic for my old favourite, together with a buffer stage and an amplifier stage which should deliver about 5V P/P into a 50 ohm load. We'll discuss each relevant stage and produce some rule-of-thumb design info. Because the consensus comes down in favour of FETS and I'm big enough to lay aside my prejudices in the noble cause of advanced education we'll use a FET oscillator. Nothing to do with a few friends who might belt me up!
 
 
 For this design I'm going to say we will be constructing a general purpose VFO to operate at 5000 - 5100 Khz no particular reason, pick anything you like.
Now I chose a 2N4416A FET purely because I bought a big bag of them years ago and have them on hand. You could use any general purpose JFET you can readily obtain. Note the 2N4416A is a metal can and the case is grounded.
The frequency determining components are L1, Ct (a nominal 10 pf trimmer), C1a, C1b, C2, C3, Cv and C4.
Note: I have been asked a number of times the function of C4 in this circuit. Capacitor C4 is to reduce the loading on the tuned circuit components. It may be as small as possible consistent with being able to provide sufficient drive to the succeeding buffer amplifier stage. Often the home constructor will often make C4 a trimmer.
The other components are bog standard. The two resistors, silicon diode and zener diode need never change, capacitor C5 is about right for this frequency. C6 can be selected to give higher / lower output to the buffer amplifier. Smaller C6 values give lower output and conversely higher values give larger output.
The silicon diode I'll explain later, the zener diode is to give a regulated 6.2 volt supply
Now there is NOTHING sacred about my frequency determining capacitor combination O.K.? Too many people look at these kind of circuits and think they must duplicate everything literally, not so. This is just a typical representation. C1 to C3 plus Cv and Ct are just a combination of parallel and some series capacitors all designed to give us a bit of flexibility with the tuning range. Cv could easily be replaced by two back to back tuning diodes.
What you need to do to get the circuit to work is to have an inductive reactance for L1 of around about 180 ohms. At 5 Mhz this works out at about 5.7 uH and, if you don't know how I arrived at that figure I seriously recommend you spend some time on my other tutorials on my new site such as Basics and LC Filters.
The important aspect is that the feedback point from the source of the JFET connects to about 25% of the windings of L1 from the ground end. Now I've depicted an air cored inductor. It could be, just as one example among a great many, 18 - 19 turns of #20 gauge wire on a 25.4 mm (1") diameter form spread evenly over a length of about 25.4 mm (1"). The tap would be at about 4 1/2 turns. Check that out with the formula's I taught you elsewhere.
Alternatively, with degraded performance, you could use a T50-6 toroid and wind say 37 turns of #24 wire (5.48 uH) tapping at 9 turns. The AL factor for a T50-6 is 40. Again do the other tutorials if necessary, I'm not going to repeat old work and it's going to be even harder from here on. I'll thoroughly explain new concepts, not the old.
So if we are to have our oscillator working at about 5 Mhz, we know the LC is 1013 and if L is say 5.7 uH then total C for resonance (just like LC Filters eh!) is about 177 pF. We want to be able to tune from 5000 to 5100 Khz a tuning ratio of 1.02 which means a capacitance ratio of 1.04 (min to max.).
Let's fiddle with some numbers! I have a Jackson Bros. air variable capacitor (very Rolls-Royce) which swings from 10.5 pF to 105 pF, a typical 10:1 ratio in air variables. This I will use for Cv.
If the total swing is 1.04 (actually 1.0404:1) and Cmax is 177 pF it follows Cmin is 170 pF. A variation of only 7 pF (roughly). Now we're treading on unsafe ground here with such a large variable capacitor. We could:
A)     rip plates of it to reduce capacitance (don't even think about it)
B)    go to varactor diodes with a small swing. That's O.K. but performance becomes degraded.
C)    obtain a smaller air variable with Cmax of say 25 pF.
Just to prove I'm a glutton for punishment and if you're still here so are you, we will purely for the mathematical exercise, persevere with the 105 pF variable. What if we eliminate C3 and make C2 = 15 pF NPO then the series combination of C2 and Cv swing 6.176 pF to 13.125 pF, a variation of over 6.9 pF - are you lost? Go back to the other tutorials.
If our Cmax was 177 pF then 177 - 13.125 = 163.875 and the 177 pF was approximate anyway. I'd make Ct a 10 pF air trimmer (if available, if not, a ceramic or whatever the supplier offers but 10 pF max.). That leaves about 154 pF to make up. How about making C1a and C1b into 3 NPO capacitors of say 2 X 47 pF and 1 X 56 pF all NPO types. In total that comes to less than 177 pF max. but don't forget there are stray capacitance's in the circuit. In the final wash-up you could simply use 3 X 47 pF.

Ref: http://my.integritynet.com.au/purdic/oscillators.htm
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Design and construction of Radio Frequency Oscillators

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Some people regard the design of RF Oscillators to be something akin to a "black art" and after many years of swearing at "cranky" oscillators I'm not all too sure they are all that wrong. I suggest you ensure you remember this old saying:
"Amplifiers oscillate and oscillators amplify" - unknown

Introduction
When I was a kid, yes I can remember back to the late 1940's, we collected all manner of junk. Cool was anything remotely electrical and, of course bicycle dynamos, lamps or motors were even "extra cool".
We as precious little seven year olds conceived - all budding nuclear physicists that we were - of this real smart idea, obviously nobody had ever thought of this before.
"Why don't we connect a motor to a generator, so the motor drives the generator, providing electricity for the motor, which continues to drive the generator and it'll go on, and on, and on for a hundred years and we'll become world famous!"

Of course we had no concept of frictional losses (I think that's right) way back then. Nor had the words "perpetual motion" passed our ears.
The whole point of that little story is to crudely demonstrate the principle of how an oscillator works. If you can follow that childishly naive concept then you will kill them in this.

Principles of Oscillator operation
Every oscillator has at least one active device (smarties don't complicate matters for me - just read on) be it a transistor or even the old valve. This active device and, for this tutorial we'll stick to the humble transistor, acts as an amplifier. There is nothing flash about that. For this first part of the discussion we will confine ourselves to LC Oscillators and I'll keep the maths to an absolute minimum.
At turn on, when power is first applied, random noise is generated within our active device and then amplified. This noise is fed back positively through frequency selective circuits to the input where it is amplified again and so on, a bit like my childhood project. Ultimately a state of equilibrium is reached where the losses in the circuit are made good by consuming power from the power supply and the frequency of oscillation is determined by the external components, be they inductors and capacitors (L.C.) or a crystal. The amount of positive feedback to sustain oscillation is also determined by external components.

Frequency or Phase Stability
Frequency or phase stability of an oscillator is customarily considered in the long term stability case where frequency changes are measured over minutes, hours, days even years. Of interest here are the effects of the components changes, with ambient conditions, on the frequency of oscillation. These might be caused by changes in the input voltage, variations in temperature, humidity and ageing of our components.
Never underestimate the effects of these variations on the frequency of operation. I've gone nuts working on so called precision designs, with precision components, where the frequency wandered at random over several kilohertz over several minutes. Needless to say I'd "messed up".
Short term stability is also of great interest and, again I could lay some real heavy maths on you but I won't. I'll simply say it can be mathematically proven that the higher the circuit Q, the higher this stability factor becomes. The higher the circuit Q, the better the ability the tuned circuit can filter out undesired harmonics AND noise.

Reducing Phase Noise
1.       Maximize the Qu of the resonator.
2.       Maximize reactive energy by means of a high RF voltage across the resonator. Use a low LC ratio.
3.       Avoid device saturation and try to use anti parallel (back to back) tuning diodes.
4.       Choose your active device with the lowest NF.
5.       Choose a device with low flicker noise, this can be reduced by RF feedback. A bipolar transistor with an unby-passed emitter resistor of 10 to 30 ohms can improve flicker noise by as much as 40 dB.
6.       The output circuits should be isolated from the oscillator circuit and take as little power as possible.

Effects of ambient changes on stability
A frequency change of a few tens of hertz back and forth over a couple of minutes would mean nothing to an entertainment receiver designed for the FM Radio band. Such a drift in an otherwise contest grade receiver designed to receive CW (morse code) would be intolerable. It's a question of relativity.

Minimizing Frequency drift
These are random and not in any particular order.
1.     Isolate the oscillator from succeeding stages with a well designed buffer stage followed by a stage of amplification. Large signals can often then be reduced by a 3 or 6 dB attenuator which also has the benefit of presenting a well defined load impedance to the amplifier. If the stage is feeding a mixer, as is most often the case, then another benefit is the mixer (you are using double balanced mixers?), also see a source impedance of 50 ohms.
2.     Ensure the mechanical stability of your oscillator is such that mechanical vibration can have no effect on components, especially those frequency determining components.
3.     Supply the oscillator with a clean well regulated supply. If using varactor tuning, doubly ensure the tuning DC voltage is as clean as possible, a few hundred micro volts of noise can be imposed on the oscillator signal. Use back to back diodes for the variable element. Air variables are hard to come by although they offer far superior Q figures. DC tuning tends to be more versatile.
4.     Minimize circuit changes from ambient variations by using NPO capacitors, polystyrene are dearer but excellent, silvered mica in my opinion are not what many people believe and are highly over rated.
5.     The inductor should be air wound on a coil form with a configuration to maximize Qu. If you must use a toroid, where possible try to use the 6 type as it offers the best Q. Sometimes, for other reasons you might have to use a slug tuned form.
6.     Parallel a number of smaller value NPO capacitors rather than using one large one in frequency determining components. For trimmers try and use an air variable. Keep an eye out for small value N750, N1500 capacitors, < 15 pF, when available and are found to be dirt cheap. These are sometimes useful in taming drift in an oscillator.
7.     Bipolar or FETS for active device seems to be a matter of personal preference and I've seen some ferocious arguments over that one. Consensus seems to come down in favour of FETS. Me, I'm a bipolar man because FETS hate me pure and simple.
So there are some of the things to keep in mind. Hopefully at this point you have discovered the broad idea of an oscillator, I've outlined broadly two types Hartley and Colpitts. I spoken about frequency stability and listed ways to combat phase noise and reducing frequency drift. Now let's proceed to the main course.

Ref: http://my.integritynet.com.au/purdic/oscillators.htm
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Medical Electronics / Biomedical Circuits Links

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Wireless Projects Links

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Motor Speed Projects Links

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Op-Amp Circuits Links

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