Electronic Timer Switch

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Electronic Timer Switch
This electronic timer switch project is a good project to build to simulate the presence of occupants in a house. In these days when security is becoming more of a concern when no one is at home, having this device will deter the thief from breaking in. When power up, after 60 minutes, the relay will turn ON for 100 secs, OFF for the next 100 secs, and ON again for 100 secs before OFF again for the next 60 mins. This sequence will be repeated. A device such as a lamp that is connected to the relay will turn ON and OFF according to this timing.

Schematic Diagram
The schematic of the project is as shown below. 
The core of this electronic timer switch project uses a CD4060B binary counter. The binary counter has 10 outputs and the counter are counted by configuring the oscillator. Every negative clock will trigger the counter of the IC internally.
The timing of the circuit is affected by resistor R3(1M ohm) and capacitor C2(0.1uF). By connecting the four outputs in an AND configuration, the transistor Q1 will only turn ON if all the 4 outputs are in logic "1". If any of the logic is "0", the transistor will remain OFF.
For a complete cycle, the transistor will be ON twice when the output at pin 15, QJ goes to logic "1" and "0" twice when the other outputs QL, QM and QN remain at "1". When this happen, the relay K1 will switch status accordingly. The timing of the switching can be changed by changing the resistor values R2, R3 and C2. Download the data sheet of CD4060B from Texas Instrument website for more details.
Note that since the oscillator is not using crystal, the timing may not be as accurate compared to the ideal calculation. In most cases, fine tuning the resistor and capacitor are good enough to make this project a success. To check whether the circuit is working, connect a LED in series with a 390 ohm resistor at output QD. It will flash ON and OFF as the oscillator oscillates.

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Telephone Switch For Phone Recorder Project

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Introduction To Phone Recorder
This phone recorder project will enable you to record both sides of your telephone conversations. One constructed, this switch will allows you to automatically turn on your tape recorder when you pick up the handset of your telephone. Note that your tape recorder must have both a MIC socket and a REMOTE socket on it so that this device can plug into the recorder and control it. This circuit is designed to work for the newer 1.5V and 3V tape recorders as well as the usual 6V or 12V ones.

Phone Recorder Circuit Description

The circuit falls into two parts and these can be easily seen in the diagram. On the left are the connections to each telephone line and to the MIC socket of the tape recorder. The diode and capacitors ensure that no DC voltages pass through to the input of the MIC while the RC network clips large transients. On the right is the circuit which detects when the handset has been lifted and which then turns on the FET. The trim pot adjusts the voltage level of this circuit.
The voltage of the normal telephone line is between 40 to 60 volts (depending on country and telephone system.) When you pick up the handset of the telephone the voltage falls to between 6 and 12 volts. It is this drop in voltage which is used to control the tape recorder through the REMOTE connector. When the line voltage is high the base of the BC548 is pulled high so the transistor is turned on. This pulls the gate of the FET down to less than 1 volt. This shuts off the FET. (N channel enhancement mode FET's need drain bias positive and a positive gate to turn on.)
When the line voltage falls (that is, the handset is picked up) the BC548 will turn off; adjust the trimpot if it does not. So the FET gate potential rises to the 10 volts set by the zener diode. This turns the FET on to high efficiency conduction mode. Different recorders may have different polarities in their REMOTE sockets. To allow for this a PCB mounted switch has to be added to the board which will reverse the polarity of the REMOTE switch just by switching it.

Once completed, place your tape recorder next to the phone. Plug in the 2 sockets (MIC & REMOTE) into the recorder. Put in a casette tape and push 'play'. If the device has been put together correctly either of two things will happen: the tape in the recorder will start to play or it will not.
1. If it does not play then pick up the phone handset. If the tape now starts to play then the device is working. Put the handset down, depress the play and record buttons and the tape will now record when the handset is raised.
2. If the tape plays then either of two things need adjustment:
a) move the position of the trimpot across its range of positions and see if this stops the playing. If it does then lift the handset to see if the playing starts. It should. The device is ready for use.
b) if adjustment of the trimpot does nothing then the REMOTE switch needs to be switched to the other position. Do this and repeat the steps as outlined above.The device should now work. 
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High liquid level activated switch

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A method for activating a relay when the liquid level exceeds a predetermined level is shown here. DC voltage is required for driving the relay and AC voltage cannot be used here just like what we did in the case of LED and speaker. Pin 9 of the IC can be used to solve this problem. A capacitor connected from this pin to ground will keep the internal output transistor steadily ON whenever the probe resistance goes higher than the reference resistor. External transistor Q1 is connected to the collector of the internal transistor. The load that is the relay is connected at the collector of Q1. When the probe is not touching the water it equal to an open circuit situation and surely the probe resistance will be many M ohms and it is greater than the Rref(13K). The internal transistor will be switched ON and Q1 whose base is connected to the collector of the internal transistor will be in OFF condition keeping the relay inactive. When the reverse scenario occurs (fluid level touches the probe) the internal transistor is switched OFF and this in turn makes the transistor Q1 ON resulting in the activation. The load connected through the relay whether pump, lamp, alarm, solenoid valve or anything is driven. Resistor R3 limits the collector current of the internal transistor while resistor R4 provides protection to the IC from transients.
High liquid level activated switch
Probe: The probe used here can be any metal rod with size and shape of your choice. The tank must be made of metal and it should be properly grounded. For non metal tanks fix a small metal contactor at its bottom level and ground it. The probe must be placed at the level you want to monitor.

  • The circuit can be assembled on a Perf board.
  • I used 12V DC for powering the circuit.
  • Maximum supply voltage LM1830 can handle is 28V.
  • The tweeter I used was of a 16 ohm type.
  • The relay I used is a 200 ohm/12V type.
  • Maximum load current Q1 (2N2222) can handle is 800mA.
  • The switching current/voltage ratings of the relay must be according to the load you want to drive using it.
  • It is recommended to mount the IC on a holder.
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Improved 3 Transistor Audio Amp (80 milliwatt)

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This circuit is similar to the one above but uses positive feedback to get a little more amplitude to the speaker. I copied it from a small 5 transistor radio that uses a 25 ohm speaker. In the circuit above, the load resistor for the driver transistor is tied directly to the + supply. This has a disadvantage in that as the output moves positive, the drop across the 470 ohm resistor decreases which reduces the base current to the top NPN transistor. Thus the output cannot move all the way to the + supply because there wouldn't be any voltage across the 470 resistor and no base current to the NPN transistor.

This circuit corrects the problem somewhat and allows a larger voltage swing and probably more output power, but I don't know how much without doing a lot of testing. The output still won't move more than a couple volts using small transistors since the peak current won't be more than 100mA or so into a 25 ohm load. But it's an improvement over the other circuit above.
In this circuit, the 1K load resistor is tied to the speaker so that as the output moves negative, the voltage on the 1K resistor is reduced, which aids in turning off the top NPN transistor. When the output moves positive, the charge on the 470uF capacitor aids in turning on the top NPN transistor.
The original circuit in the radio used a 300 ohm resistor where the 2 diodes are shown but I changed the resistor to 2 diodes so the amp would operate on lower voltages with less distortion. The transistors shown 2n3053 and 2n2905 are just parts I used for the other circuit above and could be smaller types. Most any small transistors can be used, but they should be capable of 100mA or more current. A 2N3904 or 2N3906 are probably a little small, but would work at low volume.
The 2 diodes generate a fairly constant bias voltage as the battery drains and reduces crossover distortion. But you should take care to insure the idle current is around 10 to 20 milliamps with no signal and the output transistors do not get hot under load.
The circuit should work with a regular 8 ohm speaker, but the output power may be somewhat less. To optimize the operation, select a resistor where the 100K is shown to set the output voltage at 1/2 the supply voltage (4.5 volts). This resistor might be anything from 50K to 700K depending on the gain of the transistor used where the 3904 is shown. 
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3 Transistor Audio Amp (50 milliWatt).

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Here is a little audio amplifier similar to what you might find in a small transistor radio. The input stage is biased so that the supply voltage is divided equally across the two complimentary output transistors which are slightly biased in conduction by the diodes between the bases. A 3.3 ohm resistor is used in series with the emitters of the output transistors to stabilize the bias current so it doesn't change much with temperature or with different transistors and diodes. As the bias current increases, the voltage between the emitter and base decreases, thus reducing the conduction. Input impedance is about 500 ohms and voltage gain is about 5 with an 8 ohm speaker attached. The voltage swing on the speaker is about 2 volts without distorting and power output is in the 50 milliwatt range. A higher supply voltage and the addition of heat sinks to the output transistors would provide more power. Circuit draws about 30 milliamps from a 9 volt supply. 
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Microcontroller Based Electronic Thermostat Project Electronic Thermostat

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Electronic Thermostat
Mechanical thermostat has been around for a long time and has been used in industrial control, home appliances control and many other devices to measure and control the temperature of a certain processes. The sensor used usually is a bimetallic sensor that is make from two different metals that expand at different rates as they are heated up. These metal strips are bonded together and when the temperature rises, the strips will bend upward hence making connection to the contact of the circuit so that current can flow through the circuit.
As the temperature cools down, it will go back to its original position and disconnect the current from the circuit. By adjusting the strip and the contact, the temperature can be contolled. Most oven and air conditioners use this type of sensor. The mechanical thermostat is more widely used due to its lower cost compared to electronic thermostat.
The use of electronic thermostat is becoming more popular now as the cost of semiconductor continues to drop with the advancement of better fabrication and packaging processes. Many applications have switched to electronic control as the control of the temperature is more accurate, easier to control the desired temperature using digital technology, more reliable and interfacing with other devices.
This application note from Microchip uses a low cost 6 pin microcontroller in the design of electronic thermostat. The features of PIC10F204 are as shown below. One advantage is that it has the PDIP package which makes it easier for electronic hobbyists to do their own soldering.

  • 256 Words Program Memory and 16 bytes Static RAM
  • Wide Operating Voltage from 2.0V to 5.5V DC
  • 3 I/O
  • 1 comparator
  • 25 mA source/sink current I/O
  • 1 8-bit timers.

Among the learning experiences one gained from this projects are:
  • Power supply is directly tapped from the AC lines voltage using a resistive based power supply. This makes the entire circuit live and one has to be careful when implementing this project. Ensure that no parts of the circuit is accessible to any user. Use a plastic enclosure to house the printed circuit board properly.
  • The principles of triac is briefly discussed here. The use of zero crossing detection is useful as many applications use this method in their operations. Among them are light dimmer and motor control applications.
  • Learn how to optimise the program code to make it efficient. Many programmers use long routines to accomplish a certain task when a few lines of codes would be sufficient. This experience needs to be learned as one hands on a project and repeatedly look into the code to make it shorter and efficient.
  • Having learned the code, one can then modify and add temperature sensor to make it a close loop control. Display circuity and user interface can be added to the system by migration to a higher pin count microcontroller.

The full application note and source code of the Microcontroller Based Electronic Thermostat Project can be obtained from Microchip website.
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Low Frequency Sinewave Generators

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The two circuits below illustrate generating low frequency sinewaves by shifting the phase of the signal through an RC network so that oscillation occurs where the total phase shift is 360 degrees. The transistor circuit on the right produces a reasonable sinewave at the collector of the 3904 which is buffered by the JFET to yield a low impedance output. The circuit gain is critical for low distortion and you may need to adjust the 500 ohm resistor to achieve a stable waveform with minimum distortion. The transistor circuit is not recommended for practical applications due to the critical adjustments needed.

The op-amp based phase shift oscillator is much more stable than the single transistor version since the gain can be set higher than needed to sustain oscillation and the output is taken from the RC network which filters out most of the harmonic distortion. The sinewave output from the RC network is buffered and the amplitude restored by the second (top) op-amp which has gain of around 28dB. Frequency is around 600 Hz for RC values shown (7.5K and 0.1uF) and can be reduced by proportionally increasing the network resistors (7.5K). The 7.5K value at pin 2 of the op-amp controls the oscillator circuit gain and is selected so that the output at pin 1 is slightly clipped at the positive and negative peaks. The sinewave output at pin 7 is about 5 volts p-p using a 12 volt supply and appears very clean on a scope since the RC network filters out most all distortion occurring at pin 1. 
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Temperature and relative humidity meter using an inexpensive DHT11 sensor

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Project Summary

Numerous studies have shown that the indoor temperature and relative humidity at workplace significantly impacts workers' comfort and productivity. The first step towards optimizing these two ambient parameters is their reliable measurement. This project describes an inexpensive technique of using the DHT11 sensor for measuring temperature and relative humidity in parallel. It uses the PIC16F628A microcontroller to read the sensor output and display the results on a 16x2 character LCD.

Project Description

DHT11 is the most inexpensive sensor currently available in the market that provides calibrated digital outputs for temperature and relative humidity. It is available in a single row 4-pin package and operates from 3.5 to 5.5V power supply. It can measure temperature from 0-50 °C with an accuracy of ±2°C and relative humidity ranging from 20-95% with an accuracy of ±5%, thus making it suitable for indoor applications. The sensor has got its own proprietary 1-wire protocol to communicate with a host microcontroller.

 The following timing diagram describes the protocol involved in the communication between a MCU and the DHT11 sensor.

The MCU initiates data transmission by issuing a “Start” signal. The MCU first pulls the data line low for at least 18 ms and then pulls it high for next 20-40 μs. When the line is released by the MCU the sensor responds to the “Start“ signal by pulling the line low for 80 μs followed by a logic high signal that also lasts for 80 μs. Remember that the MCU pin must be configured to input after finishing the “Start“ signal. Once detecting the response signal from the sensor, the MCU is ready to receive data from the sensor. The sensor then sends 5 bytes of data continuously in the data line with the most significant bit first for each byte. The 5 bytes of data consists of,
Data = Integer Byte of RH + Decimal Byte of RH + Integer Byte of Temp. + Decimal Byte of Temp. + Checksum Byte
For DHT11 sensor, the decimal bytes of temperature and humidity measurements are always zero. Therefore, the first and third bytes of received data actually give the numeric values of the measured relative humidity (%) and temperature (°C). The last byte is the checksum byte which is used to make sure that the data transfer has happened without any error. If all the five bytes are transferred successfully then the checksum byte must be equal to the last 8 bits of the sum of the first four bytes, i.e.,
Checksum = Last 8 bits of (Integer Byte of RH + Decimal Byte of RH + Integer Byte of Temp. + Decimal Byte of Temp.)
Now lets talk about the signal conditions used by DHT11 for transmitting data. In order to send a bit of data, the sensor first pulls the line low for 50 μs and then raises it to high for 26-28 μs (for sending “0″), or for 70 μs (for sending “1”). So the width of the positive pulse carries information about 1 and 0.
At the end of the last transmitted bit, the sensor pulls the data line low for 50 μs and then releases it. It is now ready to receive another start signal from the MCU.

Circuit diagram

Here is the circuit diagram of this project. The DHT11 sensor and a HD44780-based character LCD are both interfaced to the PIC16F628A microcontroller, which runs at 4.0 MHz clock using an external resonator connected between OSC1 (16) and OSC2 (15) pins. The use of 4.0 MHz clock makes the timing calculation easier as 1 machine cycle becomes 1 μs. The timing information will be used to calculate the width of the received data pulse from the sensor so that we could identify if it is carrying a 1 or 0.


The firmware for this project is written in C and compiled with mikroC Pro for PIC compiler from mikroElektronika. The Timer2 module is used as a free running counter to measure the width of the received data pulse, which is required to differentiate 1 and 0. Since 1 machine cycle of PIC is 1 μs in this project, the value of Timer2 register gives the pulse width in μs, which makes timing calculation easier. When a low-to-high pulse is detected at the beginning of any data bit, Timer2 is cleared and turned ON. It is stopped whenever the data pulse is low again. The value of the TMR2 register then gives the width of the data pulse in μs. In this project, 40 μs is used as a threshold and therefore, if the received pulse width is greater than 40 μs it represents 1, otherwise it is 0. The checksum byte is verified before displaying the results on the LCD.

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LG Optimus 4X HD

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LG Optimus 4X HD :)

 Quad-core Tegra 3:)

 Ice Cream Sandwich:)

 4.7-inch display:):)


If LG failed to impress so far with the Android 2.3 phones it's shown off in the run up to MWC 2012, perhaps the Optimus 4X HD can turn things around. This 4.7-inch beast will hit Europe in the second quarter and is its first to feature a 1.5GHz quad-core Tegra 3 as its benchmark destroying CPU, a 4.7-inch True HD IPS LCD (1280x720) plus what appears to be a lightly customized version of Ice Cream Sandwich. Perhaps the only logical followup to its Optimus 2X that kicked off all the dual-core madness, it also includes a 2,150mAh battery, 1GB of RAM and 16GB of internal storage. Despite that huge screen, at a depth of 8.9mm it's only slightly thicker than the superwide 4x3 Optimus Vu. Just like the Fujitsu prototype we spent some time with at CES, the Tegra 3 features a 4+1 "Companion Core" design, with a fifth low power unit available to take care of more mundane tasks without draining the battery. This is all pretty close to the leaked "X3" specs we'd heard, however there's no mention of NFC or HSPA+ just yet, only DLNA and MHL. Check out the full press release after the break for a few more specs.

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Razer Blade review

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Razer Blade review



Typically, when a company wants to meet, you expect more of the same -- not a change in strategy, nor a decision to enter an entirely new product category. So when Razer wanted to meet us one bright, oddly cold San Franciscan morning last August, we certainly weren't expecting to meet its CEO, Min-Liang Tan, and we definitely weren't prepared to find a 17-inch prototype laptop, henceforth known as the Blade.

Shaving puns aside, we listened to Tan proudly wax on about the results of nearly three years of development, much of which involved recruiting a bevy of talent from the now-defunct OQO. What they'd accomplished, according to Tan, was the "world's first true gaming portable." An audacious statement, sure, especially considering the Blade was to be Razer's foray into the PC market. No matter. Tan's impetus was clear: the outfit would cater to gamers who'd been left in a vacuum after formerly gaming-obsessed companies sold out, leaving the segment to languish. His angle, however, would be different. The Blade wasn't going to be a gaudy, gargantuan, no-holds barred device with outright performance in mind. No, instead the 0.8-inch thick aluminum beaut would attempt to straddle the worlds of portability with performance, seeking to hit a perfectly balanced middle ground.

That sounded reasonable, but judging by reactions from most of you, the decision to stuff this $2,799 rig with a mid-range GeForce GT 555M card wasn't. Nor was the call to kit it with a paltry 320GB of rotational storage. Razer would rectify the latter in December, promising 256GB SSDs for all -- a concession that would push shipments back, well, until now. Still, even after toying with it briefly at CES, our impressions were ultimately shallow, as we couldn't get much of a feel for it in that controlled environment. Which brings us to the present day, and with Razer graciously airdropping a Blade onto our doorstep, does this experimental laptop stand up to its maker's gutsy claims? Or will those who've shelled just shy of three grand be sorely disappointed with its execution? Well, there's only one way to find out, and that's to join us past the break.

Look and feel

We hate using the term, but we will anyway: the Blade is sexy. That's a grossly overused word, sure, but if we ever really meant it, that time would be now. The Blade feels premium in a way that's difficult to quantify, but we're sure it has something to do with that sturdy shell and relatively thin profile. There's no question in our mind, though, its inspiration, down to the minutiae, borrows heavily -- and we mean heavily -- from the 17-inch MacBook Pro. Details like its latchless design, sunken chiclet keyboard, to the shape of its outer shell down and its identical hinge. But we're perfectly okay with that, as they've been remixed into something far more arresting.

That luxurious experience begins not with the hardware, but the elaborate packaging. To say we weren't expecting much would be an understatement -- can you remember the last time you unboxed a PC laptop? -- but how could you not, with the faux-carbon fiber weave adorning the box above? Not to mention those gorgeous asymmetrical cut-outs, giving way to a Razer-green layer beneath, subconsciously begging you to peel it away. Lifting off the top half reveals an interior dominated by the rather large laptop, which you'll conveniently lift out with a similarly hued green ribbon. Underneath, you'll find the usual suspects: a pouch containing manuals, stickers and so forth, alongside a custom oblong power brick. So far so good.

To achieve that relatively thin 0.8-inch profile, Razer's kitted its offering with a sparser number of ports than you'd find on a traditional "gamer-focused" machine. On the left side, just past the beefy cooling vent, there's power, Ethernet, HDMI, three USB ports (one of the 3.0 persuasion, demarcated in green) and a headphone jack. That's it connectivity-wise, as on the right you'll find another exhaust (identical in size and placement to its leftward cousin) and a Kensington lock slot about half way down. It's around this time you realize the Blade is devoid of an optical drive, so those thinking about installing games the old-fashioned way better invest in an external unit or get cozy with a service like Valve's Steam or EA's Origin. Other exterior highlights worth mentioning are a backlit logo on the lid, which glows green, and an additional set of chrome-accented vents festooning the base.

Lift the lid and you'll see that sparse aesthetic extends onto the laptop's interior. Which, apart from the already mentioned backlit keyboard and LCD-stuffed trackpad, is home to a rather large power button, which glows green when the laptop is powered on, and pulses when the machine's asleep. The only remaining features crammed onto the deck space are a speaker grille that runs the entire length of the hinge, and a chrome-ringed webcam, just north of the screen.

While tastefully designed and well-built, unfortunately not all is perfect in the land of the Blade. There's one niggling flaw that taints the otherwise top-notch experience, and it has to do with difficulties in prying the latchless notebook open. Either the hinge isn't lubricated enough, or the front-portion of the system isn't privy to enough mass, but with the unit shut, attempts to lift the display are met with frustration, as its bottom (read: computer-housing portion) comes along for the ride. You eventually adjust to opening it more slowly and with less force, or by holding the base while you attempt the maneuver -- neither of which, we think, are satisfactory options for a machine this expensive. It's an unfortunate oversight (or engineering compromise, perhaps) and our only real gripe with the hardware, though unfortunately it rears its head every time you open it.

Keyboard and touchpad

While the rest of the Blade isn't functionally different from other laptops, its party piece, the LCD-toting touchpad and the ten configurable buttons directly above it, are certainly novel. We'll begin with the mousing device. As best as we can tell, its top-most layer houses a rather thick layer of tempered plastic, which unfortunately introduces more friction than we'd like, in addition to the fact that it just doesn't feel as premium as the rest of the laptop. Although in fairness, with time (and of course, grease) swipes do become easier. But for what it lacks in feel, the pad makes up for in accuracy: we found tracking excellent and can happily report that for once we've got a trackpad that can actuate two-finger scrolling in a non-frustrating fashion. Like all PC scrolling, it's linear -- there isn't any spiffy physics-induced acceleration of content here -- but the Synaptics pad was more than responsive otherwise. Multitouch also makes an appearance, naturally making that previous two-finger scrolling endeavor possible, as well as a few others: like pinch-to-zoom, two-finger rotations and three-finger swipes which provide a modicum of functionality depending on what app has focus. Those additional gestures weren't nearly as polished, but seeing as they're less generally useful, we didn't mind much, except for the last, which you'll have to be rather deliberate to actuate as you swap between pre-programmed sets of icons in one mode of trackpad.

But stuffing a trackpad with an LCD can only get you so far, which is where the company's Switchblade-UI comes in. After creating or logging into the company's Synapse service, the ten keys above burst into life. From the initial screen above, you can use the touchpad as you normally would, or throw it into one of ten alternative modes -- nine of which hijack all trackpad mousing functionality altogether (leaving all cursor control to a dedicated external mouse). Returning to the default mode is thankfully easy, though, as one hits the dedicated Razer button in the bottom right corner of the keyboard. We spent most of our time in the first mode, which is the one you'll want, as this is the only one in which those delectable ten keys can be configured as you please. To customize them you'll use the company's Synapse utility, which is where you can create and save multiple profiles -- a fancy name for groupings of your button-machinations. Within each profile, you can configure infinite sets of ten keys, which you'll then swipe between with that three finger swipe we mentioned earlier.

From Synapse those buttons can be assigned to mimic any key press, any mouse button, a pre-recorded macro or alternatively launch a program. Once you've assigned a function, you can optionally choose an icon (your own, or one of the company's pre-sets) and voila, you're good to go. While some of you will no doubt painstakingly go through and create multiple profiles for all your favorite games, we reveled in primarily using this functionality as our application launcher. With one-touch access to our favorite ten programs, and only a swipe away from twenty, we nary had to touch the Windows taskbar or desktop shortcuts to launch our browser, Photoshop or whatever game we pleased. It's an Optimius mini-six mini-ten on our laptop and it's the next best thing since sliced bread.

Believe it or not, that's only the trackpad's first view. Tapping the Razer key and returning to its initial screen, the next three options are widget-y type screens: a numpad, a mode to record macros and a pane to enable and tweak settings pertaining to "Gaming mode." Following that is the browser (more on that later,) which also serves as the basis for the following four: YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and GMail. Apart from YouTube (which is more customized and gets a custom mapping of buttons), these all load mobile versions of those sites, which can range from workable (Twitter), frustrating (Facebook) or pretty much unusable (GMail). The final and tenth function, is a clock -- something we'd have loved to use as our trackpad's background (instead of the persistent Razer logo), but curiously this mode blocks our mousing endeavors, despite being non-customizable and unresponsive to gestures.

Circling back to the touchpad's browser, it actually runs a separate process of Internet Explorer -- the giveaway being the tell-tale clicking sound effect you'll hear when you tap links. When surfing, the bottom five keys swap to pertain to navigation, with the last two allowing you to bringing up URL and search fields which you populate with input from the keyboard. It's serviceable when you need a walkthrough, but no way to store bookmarks or change the default homepage, we found it simply quicker to pull out a smartphone, reach for a tablet, or even use the Windows key to hop out of a game and open a real desktop browser to find what we were looking for.

That's unfortunate, because while stuffing a screen underneath a trackpad sounds like a geek's dream, the software powering the trackpad is lackluster. In a day and age with mobile devices housing far richer experiences, there isn't any way you'll be using the mobile website of Facebook here, over the purpose-built app on your phone. In our time with it, the trackpad was a conversation starter, sure, but ultimately the widgets onboard need a significant investment of time and resources to make them practical enough for us to recommend them. You could argue that Razer should just run Android on the touchpad instead, and while that would assuage some of our concerns, if given the choice, we'd just dump the screen entirely and put those savings toward a cheaper starting price. Put simply, had the screen beneath the Blade gone "missing," from prototype to production, we'd have been just as pleased in our time with it -- keep the ten customizable buttons above it, though -- those can stay.

When it came to the keyboard, there was better news, as we've got unwavering praise for the tactility of the unit on the Blade. We'd have preferred if the entire deck were shifted a bit northward, allowing for a roomier palm rest, but now we're just nitpicking, as that chiclet keyboard is top-notch. As you'd expect, every key is backlit, though for whatever reason, despite the F-row being backlit, the secondary Fn-based controls that co-inhabit them, aren't. That sets you up for some inconvenience when adjusting brightness or volume in low-light, but we'll hazard that before long you'll have their respective F1-F12 mappings committed to memory. Lastly, we're told it's anti-ghosted too, which might not have made a huge difference when typing this review, but certainly caters to the kind of serious gamers for whom Razer seeks.

Display and sound

If one piece defines our time with the Blade, it's the gargantuan 17.3-inch display. Defining the unit's massive footprint, the full 1080p matte panel (1920 x 1080) is a particularly bright spot. Ripe with color and vibrant from all angles, we had no complaints about the panel's black levels, contrast or brightness. White balance skews a little blue, but nothing that couldn't be rectified with some calibration. Finally, did you hear us say it's matte? Because it is, and that's your only choice. Kudos, Razer -- death to glossy displays.

As splendid as its primary display is, our general feeling of disappointment with secondary LCD found underneath the trackpad continues. Its certainly not of the same caliber, suffering primarily from a lack of brightness and poor black levels. Weak contrast aside, the reflective screen is more squint-inducing than we'd like, rendering it especially dim in bright environments. We also noticed its tendency to diagonally shear while displaying fast-paced content -- say like when rapidly scrolling a webpage, or whilst watching video with fast-paced action. Seeing as you won't be using it much, neither are deal-breakers, but we'd hoped for more when we were told it was equivalent to a smartphone panel. In contrast, the ten programmable keys sitting directly above (all powered by a separate LCD, we'd imagine), are bright and delectably tactile as ever.

Which brings us to the Blade's acoustic performance. Unlike some of its flashier contemporaries, Razer didn't team up with a speaker manufacturer to serve up audio on the Blade. Setting aside the question of whether or not marketing infused tie-ups actually derive better sound, the unfortunate fact is the audio experience on the Blade is woefully subpar. Our unit wasn't particularly loud, but more alarming was the complete dearth of any meaningfully low bass notes. Not unlike listening to earbuds lying on your desk, the sound lacks any warmth -- which is unacceptable, given that $2,799 price tag. You can ameliorate the situation slightly by flipping the included Dolby Home Theater software on, but ultimately software enhancements can only go so far. We know, serious gamers will use plug in a proper headset, but it's definitively the weakest area of the Blade -- so bad mind you, we initially questioned if our unit was faulty.


PCMark Vantage
Razer Blade (2.8GHz Core i7-2640M, GeForce GT555M, 8GB) 14,379 11,556
MSI GT683DXR (2.2GHz Core i7-2630QM, GeForce GTX 570M, 16GB) 7,210 16,862
Toshiba Qosmio X775-3DV78 (2.0GHz Core i7-2630QM, GeForce GTX 560M, 8GB) 7,900 15,169
HP Envy 15 (2.4GHz Core i5-2430M, AMD Radeon HD 7690M 1GB) 7,210 8,839
Dell XPS 15z (2.7GHz Core i7-2620M, NVIDIA GeForce GT525M) 8,023 7,317
15-inch Samsung Series 7 Chronos (2.2GHz Core i7-2675QM, Intel HD 3000 / AMD Radeon HD 6750M 1GB) 7,824 8,891
Sony VAIO SE series (2.4GHz Core i5-2430M, Intel HD Graphics 3000 / AMD Radeon HD 6630M 1GB) 5,632 6,898
2011 15-inch MacBook Pro (2.2GHz Core i7-2720QM, Radeon HD 6750M / Intel Graphics 3000) 8,041 10,262

Despite being tuned for balance, the Blade eked out a rather respective showing in our usual collection of benchmarks. Armed with a 2.8GHz Core i7-2640M CPU, it notched a speedy 14,379 in PCMark Vantage. It wasn't nearly as triumphant in the graphics department, where it was held back by that GeForce 555M card, which managed 11,556 in 3DMark06 and P1,536 in 3DMark11.

Performance isn't all about raw numbers, though, and happily the Blade doesn't disappoint in real world use. Throughout our testing, the Blade was able to handle typical computing tasks aplomb: heavy web browsing, Photoshop editing and serving as an Engadget workhorse were all dealt swiftly and without complaint. It's when you ask the Blade to serve as your gaming compatriot, however, things begin to get a little murky. While after-work Starcraft II matches cranked just shy of ultimate posed no problem (with framerates consistently in the high forties to fifties,) we can't say the same about newer titles which invoke strain, even after you reel in the visuals significantly. While playing The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, for example, we reeled graphical settings all the way back to medium to make the game passably playable -- we're talking frame rates in the high twenties at full resolution [Update: Fresh drivers from NVIDIA drastically improved performance for Skyrim, enabling the game to run on the GPU instead of integrated graphics card. With graphics cranked to high we saw frames hover around high twenties, and in medium a very playable low forties]. With something like Battlefield 3 on the other hand, we had more luck, eking out more respectable mid-30FPS from medium settings, again at full resolution.

When it came to heat dissipation, we had no complaints in our time spent with the Blade. As you'd expect, things get a little toasty while running full tilt, but even then it won't lacerate, and for general purposes it kept decently cool. Fans weren't loud obnoxiously loud either, however, in time you'll notice the fairly aggressive leftward unit which has a tendency to flare up any time you encounter peaky CPU work. We weren't particularly dismayed by the behavior, but it's definitively noticeable, perhaps more so here, as the Blade's SSD makes it silent otherwise.

Finally, thanks to its aforementioned reliance on flash storage, loading times, installs and boots were speedy, with the latter clocking in at 17-18 seconds from a cold start to the Windows login screen. Running the disk benchmark ATTO informed us that peak reads happened at 467MB/sec and writes at 362MB/sec. Finally, we'd like to applaud Razer for making the right choice in delaying shipment to opt for that SSD -- in 2012 as far as we're concerned, it's a must-have in a machine in this price range.

Battery life

Battery Life
Razer Blade 2:57
MSI GT683DXR 2:40
Toshiba Qosmio X775-3DV78 1:26
2010 HP Envy 17 2:10
HP Envy 15 4:07
Dell XPS 15z 3:41 (Optimus disabled) / 4:26 (Optimus enabled)
15-inch Samsung Series 7 Chronos 5:47
2011, 15-inch MacBook Pro 7:27

So we've determined it isn't quite the graphical sprinter, but can the Blade still come out ahead in the marathon that's battery longevity? In a word no. As shown above, running Engadget's video-rundown test at roughly half brightness reveals things are a little more complicated than you might have initially thought. Yes, the Blade's less power hungry graphics are primarily responsible for it running circles around its more pudgy, brute-ish rivals. Still, that's not saying much, as being just shy of three hours, it falls considerably short when compared to more mainstream notebooks. Still, that bests MSI's 15-inch GT583DXR by a full 20 minutes despite wielding a larger screen (but with a lesser card) and demolishes the more comparable 17-inch Qosmio X775's by a whopping hour and a half -- all, in a thin profile.

Alas, if you were planning on a sojourn sans charger, you'll be out of luck. Even with casual use and exercising brightness restraint, we were only able to coax just shy of three and a half hours of work out of its 60Wh battery -- dwindling down to around three with full brightness. For those daring to game on the go, unlike other laptops which'll significantly pare down their performance, the Blade will cheerfully run at full throttle for about an hour before simmering down. Ultimately neither are legendary, we know, but compared to other laptops, definitely workable.


Seeing as its exterior is devoid of all stickers -- save for one -- why would Razer go and mess with its innards? Thankfully it hasn't, leaving the Blade free of additional software or crapware, with an almost clean install of Windows 7 Home Premium. And we mean "almost," as you'll still get Dolby Home Theater software and a copy of Razer's Synapse app -- the later of which you'll want to configure that those LCD buttons.

The competition
The market for laptops that cost nearly three large is by no means sprawling, but indulge us for just a moment while we compare the Blade to other systems that compete in this arena. We'll begin with the granddaddy of them all, the Alienware M17x. Though configurations of that beastly guy start at $1,499, it can be stuffed with all sorts of doodads, pushing it beyond the Blade's $2,799 price. To match the Blade's price tag, we began with the $1,899 machine and kitted it with a 2.5GHz Core i7-2860QM, 256GB of solid state storage and opted for the 1080p panel upgrade. Standard on that model is 8GB of RAM (identical to the Blade) as well as the much more potent GeForce GTX 580M. The combination of a quad-core chip and graphics would make mincemeat out of the Blade, but at twice the thickness and double the poundage, we'll leave it up to you if that's worth the trade-off. Still, it merits noting that even the base $1,499 model with its quad-core i7 and Radeon HD 6870M would most certainly give the Blade a run for its money.

Then there's something like the MSI GT780DXR. Like the m17x, it's not as pleasing on the eyes, but at $1,799 it's hard to dismiss its bang-for-your-buck specs, which include: a Core i7-2630QM, 16GB of RAM, dual 750GB drives and the beefy onboard NVIDIA GTX 570M. When we reviewed it's smaller 15-inch brother, we took issue with some of its cheap materials -- like an abysmal keyboard and bargain-basement glossy plastics -- but one can't deny the results of its internals. Ultimately, the same caveat applies here though, you'll have to decide how much you value portability while hulking two-inch thick machine such as this.

We have yet to review it, but we'd be remiss if we didn't mention Samsung's Series 7 Gamer. Like some of its contemporaries, it, too, has a quad-core Core i7, 1080p 17-inch display, yet we're unsure on how punchy it'll be with its ho-hum Radeon HD 6970M. You're probably looking at better build quality than say MSI's offering, and we think rather striking in the optional red or marigold yellow hues. We'll find out how good it is when it ships in April, but for $1,799 there's another gaming option at under two grand to put on your radar.

Finally, this is a bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison -- insofar that Apple doesn't make a "gaming" focused laptop -- but it's worth mentioning the 17-inch MacBook Pro, as it, too, is known for offering a slim profile, given its otherwise sprawling dimensions. Starting at $2,499, you've got to tack on additional $200 for 4GB of RAM, $500 for a 256GB SSD and $50 for the anti-glare display to rival the Blade in the spec department. For those keeping track at home, that's $3,249 -- a configuration with a faster quad-core i7 paired with a slower Radeon 6770M GPU. That's a hefty chunk of change for a machine thats roughly as thin as the Blade (albeit at 0.9 inches, somewhat thicker), yet also one that's devoid of a hinge and speaker problems that blemish Razer's offering.

So where does Razer's first foray into the PC realm leave us? On the one hand, this is one beautiful, well-made, powerful, impossibly thin laptop. On the other, you'll need a stack of cash to the tune of $2,799. No matter how you slice it, that's a lot of dough to shell on a computer from a company that's just getting its feet wet in the category. Frankly, you wouldn't be crazy to sit this one out, with flaws like abysmal audio, a disobedient hinge and the indisputable fact that most of the latest gaming titles give this guy a run for its money. Additionally, there's that LCD-trackpad, which despite oozing cool, is destined to be more of a gimmick than must-have, at least until Razer invests in some better widgets.

Ultimately, though, the Blade was never about specs, and despite its maker's penchant for calling it a "gaming" machine, it's really just a striking, fast and beautiful laptop. Despite its flaws, the Blade is greater than the sum of its parts. We're cognizant $2,799 is a tough pill to swallow, though, and despite our rational selves saying "no" we've nonetheless grown quite attached after spending a week with it. For those of you with that kind of dispensable cash, go for it -- who knows, you've probably also got enough laying around to build a serious dedicated gaming rig. Personally, we're waiting for Razer to ditch the LCD-touchpad (but keep the customizable keys) and offer a similarly specced 15-incher for around two grand. Razer will really have a winner then, and yes, we'll take two.
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5 Watt Audio Amplifier based LA4460

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This 5 W audio power amplifier is built for general purpose and can drive speakers approximately 8 to 12 inches. This 5W power amplifier circuit is based on the Sanyo LA4460 IC which used as an audio output.
This Low-power amplifier circuit have built in loudness control, driver amplifier Q1, and the bass/treble controls of around ± 10 dB boost / cut. It would be useful in a wide variety of situations. Either displayed ac supply can be used, or 12 VDC supply can be connected to points A & B (positive) and C (negative).
For stereo circuit can be used two of this circuit by using ganged potentiometer at R2, R7 and R11. T1 is 12V at 1 ampere plug-in transformer.
Notice :
IC1 should be mounted with the heatsink. Power output is around 5 W.
A 4 “x 2″ x 0.050 “aluminum heatsink should be sufficient.
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30 watt audio amplifier based TDA2040

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A 30 watt audio amplifier circuit using TDA2040 are shown here. TDA2040 is class AB monolithic integrated audio amplifier available in the package Pentawatt. The IC has a low harmonic distortion and has a built in circuit protection for short circuit.
In the circuit, two TDA2040 ICs are wired in BTL (bridge-tied load) configuration to provide 30W of output into 8 ohm speakers at + /-16V DC. The capacitor C1 is the decoupling capacitor DC input. Network with components R2, C4, R3 provides feedback for IC1 while R7, C6, R8 network provides information for IC2. Network C5, R5 and C9, R9 provides stability at high frequency. Capacitors C2, C3 filters the positive supply rail while the capacitors C7, C8 filters the negative supply rail.
30 watt audio amplifier Parts list :
R1, R2, R4, R6, R7 : 22k
R3, R8 : 680 ohm
R5, R9 : 4.7 ohm
C1 : 2.2uF
C2, C7 : 100uF
C3, C8 : 100nF
C4, C6 : 22uF
C5, C9 : 0.1uF
IC1, IC2 : TDA2040
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Preamplifier for magnetic phono cartridges

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This amplifier circuit is intended to be added to the preamplifier which does not have a phono input. Such a phono input is required for normal record players with a dynamic pick-up, of which millions are still around. Moreover, the amplifier does not only bring the output of the pick-up to line level, it also adds the correction to the frequency response (according to RIAA requirements).
When recording gramophone records, the frequency characteristic is lifted at the high end. This lift must be countered in the playback (pre)amplifier. The corrections to the frequency response characteristic are according to a norm set by the Record Industries Association of America (RIAA) and also by the IEC.
The corrective curve provided by the amplifier is shown in the graph (bold line). The thin line shows the ideal corrective curve. The sharp bends in this at 50 and 500 Hz are nearly obtained in the practical curve by network R3/C2; just above 2 kHz is approached in practice by filter R5/R6/C3. The arrangement of R3/C2 in the feedback loop of IC1 gives noticeably better results than the usual (passive) filter approach.
IC1 provides a do amplification of 40 dB, which drops to about 20 dB when the frequency rises above 500 Hz. To minimize the (resistor) noise and the load of the op amp at higher frequencies, the value of R3 is a compromise. The associated polystyrene capacitor, C2, should have a tolerance of 1 to 2%.
To raise the 2-mV output of the dynamic pick-up to line level at 1 kHz, linear amplifier IC2 has been added. This stage has a gain of 22 dB, so a signal of 250 mV is available at its output.
Capacitors C4/C5 at the output, in conjunction with the input impedance of the following preamplifier, form a high-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 20 Hz; this serves to suppress any rumble or other low frequency noise. The value of C1 is normally given in the instruction booklet of the dynamic pick-up.
The power supply for the amplifier must be of good quality. Particularly, the transformer should be class Al with a small stray magnetic field.
When the amplifier is built into the record player (best), the power supply should not be included unless it is very well screened; otherwise, hum is unavoidable.
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1KHz Sine wave Generator

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R1____________5K6  1/4W Resistor
R2____________1K8 1/4W Resistor
R3,R4________15K 1/4W Resistors
R5__________500R 1/2W Trimmer Cermet
R6__________330R 1/4W Resistor
R7__________470R Linear Potentiometer

C1,C2________10nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C3__________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C4__________470nF 63V Polyester Capacitor

Q1,Q2_______BC238 25V 100mA NPN Transistors

LP1___________12V 40mA Filament Lamp Bulb (See Notes)

J1__________Phono chassis Socket

SW1__________SPST Slider Switch

B1_____________9V PP3

Clip for 9V PP3 Battery

Circuit description:

This circuit generates a good 1KHz sinewave adopting the inverted Wien bridge configuration (C1-R3 & C2-R4). It features a variable output, low distortion and low output impedance in order to obtain good overload capability. A small filament bulb ensures a stable long term output amplitude waveform.


  • The bulb must be a low current type (12V 40-50mA or 6V 50mA) in order to obtain good long term stability and low distortion.
  • Distortion @ 1V RMS output is 0.15% using a 12V 40mA bulb, raising to 0.5% with a 12V 100mA one.
  • Using a bulb differing from specifications may require a change of R6 value to 220 or 150 Ohms to ensure proper circuit's oscillation.
  • Set R5 to read 1V RMS on an Audio Millivoltmeter connected to the output with R7 rotated fully clockwise, or to view a sinewave of 2.828V Peak-to-Peak amplitude on the oscilloscope.
  • With C1, C2 = 100nF the frequency generated is 100Hz and with C1, C2 = 1nF frequency is 10KHz but R5 requires adjustment.
  • High gain transistors are preferred for better performance.
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Headphone Amplifier

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Amplifier parts:

P1_____________22K   Log.Potentiometer (Dual-gang for stereo)

R1____________560R 1/4W Resistor
R2,R3__________10K 1/4W Resistors
R4_____________12K 1/4W Resistor
R5,R6___________2R2 1/4W Resistor
R7_____________22R 1/2W Resistor

C1______________1µF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2,C3,C4______100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
C5_____________22pF 63V Polystyrene or Ceramic Capacitor
C6_____________22µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor

IC1___________LM833 or NE5532 Low noise Dual Op-amp

Q1,Q3_________BC337 45V 800mA NPN Transistors
Q2,Q4_________BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistors

J1______________RCA audio input socket 

Power supply parts:

 R8______________2K2  1/4W Resistor

C7,C8________2200µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

D1____________100V 1A Diode bridge
D2____________5mm. or 3mm. Red LED

IC2___________7815 15V 1A Positive voltage regulator IC
IC3___________7915 15V 1A Negative voltage regulator IC

T1____________220V Primary, 15 + 15V Secondary 5VA Mains transformer

PL1___________Male Mains plug

SW1___________SPST Mains switch
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45 Watt Class B Amplifier

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R1______________18K  1/4W Resistor
R2_______________3K9 1/4W Resistor
R3,R6____________1K 1/4W Resistors
R4_______________2K2 1/4W Resistor
R5______________15K 1/4W Resistor
R7______________22K 1/4W Resistor
R8_____________330R 1/4W Resistor
R9,R10__________10R 1/4W Resistors
R11,R12_________47R 1/4W Resistors
R13_____________10R 1W Resistor

C1_______________1µF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2_____________470pF 63V Polystyrene or Ceramic Capacitor
C3______________47µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C4______________15pF 63V Polystyrene or Ceramic Capacitor
C5_____________220nF 100V Polyester Capacitor
C6_____________100nF 63V Polyester Capacitor

D1,D2,D3,D4___1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes

Q1,Q2________BC560C 45V 100mA Low noise High gain PNP Transistors
Q3,Q4________BC556 65V 100mA PNP Transistors
Q5___________BC546 65V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q6___________BD139 80V 1.5A NPN Transistor
Q7___________BD140 80V 1.5A PNP Transistor
Q8__________MJ2955 60V 15A PNP Transistor
Q9__________2N3055 60V 15A NPN Transistor

Power supply circuit diagram:



R1_______________3K3  1/2W Resistor

C1,C2_________4700µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitors
C3,C4__________100nF 63V Polyester Capacitors

D1_____________200V 8A Diode bridge
D2_____________5mm. Red LED

F1,F2__________4A Fuses with sockets

T1_____________230V or 115V Primary, 25+25V Secondary 120VA Mains transformer

PL1____________Male Mains plug

SW1____________SPST Mains switch
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Plant Watering Watcher-Project

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GNU Radio-Open Source Radio Software

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GNU Radio is a free & open-source software development toolkit that provides signal processing blocks to implement software radios. It can be used with readily-available low-cost external RF hardware to create software-defined radios, or without hardware in a simulation-like environment. It is widely used in hobbyist, academic and commercial environments to support both wireless communications research and real-world radio systems.
GNU Radio applications are primarily written using the Python programming language, while the supplied performance-critical signal processing path is implemented in C++ using processor floating-point extensions, where available. Thus, the developer is able to implement real-time, high-throughput radio systems in a simple-to-use, rapid-application-development environment.
While not primarily a simulation tool, GNU Radio does support development of signal processing algorithms using pre-recorded or generated data, avoiding the need for actual RF hardware.
GNU Radio is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3. All of the code is copyright of the Free Software Foundation.


I. Getting started

If you've never touched GNU Radio before, these pages will get you started with a running installation of GNU Radio and will show you how to take your first steps with this software radio tool.

II. Community & Communicating

There's a nice community of people involved in GNU Radio. Here's some pointers on how to connect with us.

III. Using GNU Radio

Once GNU Radio is installed and running, check these pages to find out how to actually use GNU Radio. These articles refer to anything that does not involve writing C++ or signal processing code.

IV. Developing GNU Radio

Using GNU Radio is nice, but the real fun comes with developing new components for GNU Radio or actually changing the core itself. If you want to write some code, read these articles first.

V. Hardware

Hardware is strictly not part of GNU Radio, which is purely a software library. However, developing radio and signal processing code is even more fun when using hardware to actually transmit and receive, and GNU Radio supports several radio front-ends.
The most commonly used equipment are the USRP devices by Ettus Research, LLC.. For other Ettus products check out their website!

VI. Further information and 3rd party extensions

There's more stuff to be found for GNU Radio on the web. Check these pages to find tutorials, code and other information on GNU Radio.
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LG Optimus 3D Cube

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We're not sure if the world was anxiously awaiting a follow-up to LG's Optimus 3D (the AT&T Thrill 4G here in the states), but here it is: the LG Optimus 3D Cube. Only announced for Korean carrier SK Telecom so far, the Optimus 3D Cube is slightly thinner than its predecessor at 9.6mm vs. the Thrill 4G's 11.9mm, with a faster 1.2GHz dual-core CPU and 16GB of storage built-in, confirming most of the rumors we'd heard previously. According to LG, it will also be the world's first that can handle 3D photo and video editing right on its glasses-free 4.3-inch screen, all shot by the dual 5MP cameras mounted on the back. It also has NFC baked in to support the new LG Tag+ stickers that change the phone's settings when swiped, just like the Optimus LTE Tag. It's scheduled for release in early March with Android 2.3 and although we didn't see it mentioned in the Korean press release, is likely looking forward to a quick Ice Cream Sandwich makeover just like its cousin, the Optimus Vu. Check out the machine-translated specs and press release after the break, there should be a native English version along soon and of course, we'll be getting a look firsthand when Mobile World Congress kicks off on the 27th.
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