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High CMRR Instrumentation Amplifier (Schematic and Layout) design for biomedical applications

Instrumentation amplifiers are intended to be used whenever acquisition of a useful signal is difficult. IA’s must have extremely high input impedances because source impedances may be high and/or unbalanced. bias and offset currents are low and relatively stable so that the source impedance need not be constant. Balanced differential inputs are provided so that the signal source may be referenced to any reasonable level independent of the IA output load reference. Common mode rejection, a measure of input balance, is very high so that noise pickup and ground drops, characteristic of remote sensor applications, are minimized.Care is taken to provide high, well characterized stability of critical parameters under varying conditions, such as changing temperatures and supply voltages. Finally, all components that are critical to the performance of the IA are internal to the device. The precision of an IA is provided at the expense of flexibility. By committing to the one specific task of

DESIGN PROBLEM : 4-bit increment by 2 circuit

Clock gating checks in case of mux select transition when both clocks are running

Intricacies in handling of half cycle timing paths

Is hold always checked on the same edge?

Design puzzle : 2-input mux glitch issue

Setup and hold – the device perspective

Design problem: Clock gating for a shift register

MOS transistor structure

What is the difference between a normal buffer and clock buffer?

Performance gain with latches

How delay of a standard cell changes with drive strength

What is meant by drive strength of a standard cell

Setup/hold – the state machines essentials

Design problem: How can you convert an XOR gate into a buffer or an inverter?

Minimum pulse width violation example

Glitches in combinational circuits