### Voltage and Current

Already we have touched on the two terms VOLTAGE and CURRENT . Now it is time to discuss them further. VOLTAGE is the term used to describe the electrical "pressure" or difference of potential that we spoke of earlier. Just as water pressure is the force in physics that pushes water through a pipe, VOLTAGE is the physical force which pushes electrons through a wire.

Examine illustration 4.1. You see a large tank with a hose attached to the bottom of the tank. When the tank is full of water, gravity causes that water to exert pressure, which pushes down toward the bottom of the tank. With the hose at the bottom, it allows a place for the water to escape. Water Pressure, therefore causes water current to flow through the hose.

In the same sense, electrical pressure - just as water pressure pushes water through a pipe. Voltage , causes CURRENT to flow through a wire. VOLTAGE has several other names. It is sometimes called ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (E.M.F. for short), IR DROP (this will be explained a little later), and POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE . The unit of measurement for VOLTAGE is the VOLT , and it is measured by a VOLTMETER . You may run into KiloVolt s (Thousand Volts), MilliVolt s (1 Thousandth of a Volt), or even MicroVolt s (1 Millionth of a Volt).

The problem with discussing VOLTAGE is that it is difficult to talk about it, without discussing CURRENT and RESISTANCE in the same breath. The three are almost inseparable, as you will soon come to see. CURRENT (sometimes called Flow-Rate) is the term used to describe the MEASUREMENT of the FLOW or movement of electrons. The principle shouldn't be foreign to you by now. Water has current. Electricity has current. Water has current only when the river flows. If it is standing water, such as in a pond, it does not flow, and therefore has no current. Electricity only has current when it is on the move. Water that has flow, has a flow rate. That flow rate is called current. When water moves fast, we say the current is fast. When Electricity moves fast, we say it has high current.

Current is measured in AMPERE s, using an AMMETER , typically discussed as MilliAmpere ( 1 thousandth of an Ampere ) s or MicroAmpere ( 1 millionth of an Ampere ) s. Quite often, for the sake of quick speech and quicker typing, it is shortened to just 'Amps or MilliAmps.

### Build a Low Noise And Drift Composite Amp Circuit Diagram

How to Build a Low Noise And Drift Composite Amp Circuit Diagram. This circuit offers the best of both worlds. It can be combined with a low input offset voltage and drift without degrading the overall system`s dynamic performance.
Low Noise And Drift Composite Amp Circuit Diagram

Compared to a standalone FET input operational amplifier, the composite amplifier circuit exhibits a 20-fold improvement in voltage offset and drift. In this circuit arrangement, A1 is a highspeed FET input op amp with a closed-loop gain of 100 (the source impedance was arbitrarily chosen to be 100 kfl). A2 is a Super Beta bipolar input op amp. It has good dc characteristics, biFET-level input bias current, and low noise. A2 monitors the voltage at the input of A1 and injects current to Al`s null pins. This forces A1 to have the input properties of a bipolar amplifier while maintaining its bandwidth and low-input-bias-current noise.

### High Power Output Amplifier TDA7294

The famous SGS-THOMSON ST Microelectronics has introduced a Hi-Fi DMOS high-power amplifier circuit TDA7294, its sound great taste bile, which due to its internal circuit from input to output are field-effect devices, rounded sound Mild, delicate Rounuan.  However, with its assembly amplifier, only TDA7294 single-output power is only 70 W, BTL access law is 100 W from top to bottom, do not feel that power cushion. The author several tests, used to promote TDA7294-level, direct-drive one to four pairs of high-power transistor parallel, the output of strong currents, the power output of 400 W (mono), and the circuit is simple and no need to debug that can reliably work Basically, the IC has maintained a sound and performance.  Ruzuo The figure below shows, R6 for the feedback resistor, the author of the value in debugging 22 k Î© more appropriate, R6 also decided this circuit gain, the gain value will increase.  Quiescent current depends on the power of R7, R8, when its value…

### Full Power Mobile Phone Jammer Circuit Diagram

Full Power Mobile Phone Jammer Circuit Diagram.To day if we are talking about expert Cell phone Jammers we are conversing about this schematic underneath. First off all you should be very very cautious how to use this apparatus. Its completely illegal and so the reason. I post this Circuit is only for educational and testing causes. This type of apparatus is being utilised by security for VIPS, particularly at their limousines to avoid blasting device initiating while the vehicle passes from the goal cell phone-bomb. Off course there are those who use it to make a antic or to make the persons crazy in the rectangle block you are.
The power of the jammer is currently sufficient to do your thing, but certainly you can place a 30W linear power amp at the RF output and impede a much wider locality. So, Be pleasant individual with that and recall that there are people who may need desperately to obtain or make a call and one of them could be you! And if you can't oppose of functioning …