We defined POWER as the RATE of doing work. The actual work or capacity to do work is called ENERGY . Energy can be Kinetic (dynamic), Potential (static), or Radiant (electromagnetic) in nature. Energy, according physical law of "Conservation of Energy", is never lost nor gained. It may be changed from one form to another, but it never just "disappears". Just like in our resistor, we had energy being used which was dissipated as heat. The electrical energy was transformed into heat energy. It didn't disappear, it merely changed form. There are many other forms of energy. Some other forms of energy are light, sound, momentum, and MAGNETISM .
We are all familiar with magnets, and their peculiar properties which make them seem almost magical. A magnet can be used to hold a screw onto a screwdriver, to lift a car, or find your way in the forest. But what is it that makes a magnet do what it does?
If we take a magnet, and mark one end of it, we can identify one end from the other. If we then suspend the magnet from a string, so that it is free to rotate, we will notice that one end will ALWAYS point toward the north, and that it will ALWAYS be the same end of the magnet that points north.
From this, we have concluded that there is a NORTH POLE and a SOUTH POLE on every magnet. Typically the north pole is marked with an N, and south pole is marked with an S.
Now if we take two magnets with known, marked poles, and bring the North Pole of one magnet close to the South Pole of the second magnet, the two magnets will PULL TOWARD one another until they are connected. If we reverse the experiment, and bring the North Pole of one magnet, near the North Pole of the second magnet, they will PUSH AWAY from each other. This effect is called the LAW OF POLES which states:
Why is it that magnets act this way? And why do magnets have poles? These are questions which science has found difficult to answer. It is believed, though, that according to the Molecular Theory of Magnetism inside of all magnets, the tiny molecules that the magnet are made of, are all little tiny magnets in themselves, and that they are all lined up in a row.
In a normal piece of steel, for instance, the molecules are arranged in random
order, with positive and negative poles scattered about in all directions.
But when magnetized, the tiny magnetic molecules line up, allowing the whole
piece of steel to act like one big magnet.
If we place a magnet beneath a piece of paper, and place iron filings on top of the piece of paper, the result would look something like the example to the right. The iron filings will arrange themselves to LOOK like the invisible magnetic force which surrounds the magnet. This invisible magnetic force which exists in the air or space around the magnet, is known as a MAGNETIC FIELD , and the lines are called MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE .
Now if we take a non-magnetic object, such as a glass rod, and place it
within the path of a magnetic field, the lines of force produced by the field
would pass right through the object.
If, however, we wrap a magnetically conductive layer around the object, such
as a soft iron, the iron will cause the lines of force to bend, and go around
the object instead of through it. This is called a
Steel or hard iron, which is difficult to magnetize, retains the majority of its magnetism long after it has been removed from the magnetic field. This type of magnet is called a PERMANENT MAGNET . Permanent magnets are generally made in the shape of a bar or a horseshoe. Of the two shapes, the horseshoe type has the stronger magnetic field because the magnetic poles are closer to each other. Horseshoe magnets are used in the construction of headphones. Loudspeakers, on the other hand, generally use a type of Bar magnet.
It has been found that when a compass is placed in close proximity to a wire, and an electrical current flows through the wire, the compass needle will turn until it is at a right angle to the conductor. Since a compass needle lines up in the direction of a magnetic field, there must be a magnetic field around the wire, which is at right angles with the conductor! Science has discovered then, that wires which carry current have the same type of magnetic field that exists around a magnet! We say that an electric current INDUCES a magnetic field.
If you closely examine the picture on the right, you will find that there are "rings" circling about the wire. These rings represent the magnetic lines of force which exist around a wire which carries an electric current. They are strongest directly around the wire, and extend outward from the wire, gradually decreasing in intensity. You will also note that the compass needle is steady, and not spinning. This indicates that the magnetic field goes in a ring around the wire. It also travels in a specific direction.
The direction of the magnetic field can be predicted by use of what we call
LEFT HAND RULE
. According to the left hand rule, if you wrap your left hand
around the wire that is carrying the current, with your thumb following
the direction of current flow (thumb points positive), your fingers will
show you what direction the magnetic field will turn. Note that when
the current flows from negative to positive, it induces a magnetic field
in a specific direction, such that the north pole is ALWAYS at right
angles with the electrical current flow.
Through experimentation, it was found that if a wire is wound in the form of a
coil (coiled up), the total strength of the magnetic field around the coil will
be magnified. This is because the magnetic fields of each turn add up to make
one large resulting magnetic field. Furthermore, it was found that the
direction of the magnetic field could be predicted. The POSITIVE end of the
battery is ALWAYS connected to the NORTH POLE of the coil, regardless of
whether the coil is wound clockwise or counterclockwise. The coil of wire,
because of their properties and capabilities, makes up one of the main
components in electronics. For this reason, it has taken on many names, to
Coils have been given their own schematic symbol. So far we have discussed
the schematic symbol for the resistor, lamp and battery. The schematic symbol
for the coil is on the left. Note that there can be many variations of this,
which will be discussed in more detail later.
There are several factors which determine the strength of a given electromagnet. They are:
1). The amount of current - the greater the current, the greater the field.
2). The number of turns - the greater the number of turns in a coil, the greater the field.
3). The PERMEABILITY of the core.
The core of a coil is the material that the coil is wrapped around. It can be
glass, wood, metal, air, or even a vacuum. If the coil is wound upon an iron
core, the strength of the electromagnet is increased several hundred times
over what it would be with an air core. We say that iron is more permeable
than air. Permeability is the ability of a given substance to conduct
magnetic lines of force. It is similar to the effect of conductance with
respect to electrical current flow. The standard for permeability is air,
which is given a permeability of one. All other substances are compared to
air. Some examples of substances with high permeability are permalloy and
Just as conductance has an opposite - resistance; permeability also has an opposite - reluctance. RELUCTANCE is mathematically the reciprocal of PERMEABILITY. The unit of measurement for reluctance is the REL or OERSTED , and its symbol is Ö .
Voltage is the measurement for Amplitude of an electrical circuit. Magnetism also has a counterpart for this, which is called MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE . Magnetomotive force is the force which produces the magnetic lines of force or FLUX . The unit of magnetomotive force is the GILBERT , and its symbol is G . The formula for finding the value of G is as follows:
G = N x I x 1.26
N = the number of turns in the coil
I = the current flowing through the coil in Amperes