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Signal filter

What is a filter?

A filter is a device that passes electric signals at certain frequencies or
frequency ranges while preventing the passage of others. — Webster.
Filter circuits are used in a wide variety of applications. In the field of telecommunication,
band-pass filters are used in the audio frequency range (0 kHz to 20 kHz) for modems
and speech processing. High-frequency band-pass filters (several hundred MHz) are
used for channel selection in telephone central offices. Data acquisition systems usually
require anti-aliasing low-pass filters as well as low-pass noise filters in their preceding sig-
nal conditioning stages. System power supplies often use band-rejection filters to sup-
press the 60-Hz line frequency and high frequency transients.
In addition, there are filters that do not filter any frequencies of a complex input signal, but
just add a linear phase shift to each frequency component, thus contributing to a constant
time delay. These are called all-pass filters.
At high frequencies (> 1 MHz), all of these filters usually consist of passive components
such as inductors (L), resistors (R), and capacitors (C). They are then called LRC filters.
In the lower frequency range (1 Hz to 1 MHz), however, the inductor value becomes very
large and the inductor itself gets quite bulky, making economical production difficult.
In these cases, active filters become important. Active filters are circuits that use an op-
erational amplifier (op amp) as the active device in combination with some resistors and
   capacitors to provide an LRC-like filter performance at low frequencies .


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